BY GEORGE L. RUFFIN GEORGE L. RUFFIN (1834-1885) the first Negro judge to be appointed in Massachusetts, graduated in Law from Harvard, 1869. He served in the legislature of Massachusetts two terms, and in the Boston Council two terms. ... Read more of Crispus Attucks at Martin Luther King.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Perpendicular And Vertical

A few words now as to terms. The boy is often confused in determining the difference between perpendicular and vertical. There is a pronounced difference. Vertical means up and down. It is on a line in the direction a ball takes when it falls straight toward the center of the earth. The word perpendicular, as usually employed in astronomy, means the same thing, but in geometry, or in drafting, or in its use in the arts it means that a perpendicular line is at right angles to some other line. Suppose you put a square upon a roof so that one leg of the square extends up and down on the roof, and the other leg projects outwardly from the roof. In this case the projecting leg is perpendicular to the roof. Never use the word vertical in this connection.

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