# Spirals

There is no more difficult figure to make with a bow or a circle pen than a spiral. In Fig. 150 a horizontal and a vertical line (A, B), respectively, are drawn, and at their intersection a small circle (C) is formed. This now provides for four centering points for the circle pen, on the two lines (A, B). Intermediate these points indicate a second set of marks halfway between the marks on the lines. If you will now set the point of the compass at, say, the mark 3, and the pencil point of the compass at D, and make a curved mark one-eighth of the way around, say, to the radial line (E), then put the point of the compass to 4, and extend the pencil point of the compass so it coincides with the curved line just drawn, and then again make another curve, one-eighth of a complete circle, and so on around the entire circle of marking points, successively, you will produce a spiral, which, although not absolutely accurate, is the nearest approach with a circle pen. To make this neatly requires care and patience.

Fig. 150.

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Focal Points
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