In Fig. 127 the shading is very light along the upper margin, and heavy at the lower margin. The first shaded figure, therefore, represents a concaved surface, and the second figure a convex surface. But why? Simply for the reason that in drawings, as well as in nature, light is projected downwardly, hence when a beam of light moves past the margin of an object, the contrast at the upper part, where the light is most intense, is strongest.
The shading of the S-shaped surface (Fig. 128) is a compound of Figs. 126 and 127.
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