When grooves have to be worked in the edge or face of a board to receive tongues, the process is generally called ploughing, and it is usually accomplished by a special tool called a plough (or, as it is occasionally spelt, "plow"). When a plough plane is bought it is usual to procure eight plough bits or blades of various sizes to fit the plane. In is given the sketch of a plough plane with the names of the various parts lettered thereon.
Fig. 119.—Double Skirting Mould.
Fig. 120.—Joint for Corner Bracket or Cupboard.
The board or boards which it is desired to groove are first planed straight and true, exactly as though it were desired to make a glued or butt joint. One of the boards is now placed edge way up in the vice and with the face side to the worker.
Take the plough plane and select a suitably-sized blade; fix it in the plane in the usual way, allowing the cutting edge to project beyond the steel skate about 1⁄32 in., and securely drive up the wedge. Next loosen the small boxwood wedges at the side of each stem, and adjust the plane by tapping the stems with a hammer until the cutting iron is in the desired position; then knock up the small wedges nice and tight. When setting the fence to or from the blade it is a wise precaution to measure the distance from the fence to the skate at each end of the plane; this will ensure the skate being parallel to the fence. The neglect of this is a source of annoyance to many amateurs. Now adjust the depth stop by turning the screw at the top of the plane, measuring the depth of the required groove from the edge of the blade to the stop, and carefully lock the screw which adjusts this stop.
Fig. 121.—The Plough Plane and its Parts.
The plane is now ready for use. Hold the fence close up to the side of the timber, the hands in position as shown at , the position of the body being that generally assumed in planing. Move the plane backwards and forwards in the usual manner, beginning the cut at the end of the board nearest to the vice jaws (the front), and proceed with the planing until the depth stop is in contact with the wood. Then take a step backwards and repeat the process until the whole length of the groove is ploughed. Care must be taken to force the fence up to the board with the left hand, whilst the right hand thrusts the plane backwards and forwards, and the plane must be kept vertical.
Fig. 122.—Method of using the Plough Plane.
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