Of these there are a number that are advantageous for the learning of tool processes; at the same time they give opportunity for expression in design, and when finished are of use.
Examples are: key-boards, chiseling-boards, bread-boards, sleeve-boards, ironing-boards, coat- and skirt-hangers, and gouged trays. Some of these are so simple as to include hardly any process but planing, directions for which are given above.
Where there is more than one process involved, the order of procedure is of importance. In general, a safe rule to follow in each case is to plane up the piece true and square, or, in technical language, to "true" it up. At least as many of its surfaces should be trued as are necessary for the "lay out." Where the piece is to be rectangular all the surfaces should be true; where some of the surfaces are to be curved it is unnecessary and a waste of time to square them first. For example, in making a gouged tray with curved outline, Fig. 270, the working face, the working edge, and the thickness should all be true before the plan is laid out. Then, after the outline is drawn, the trough may be gouged, the outline cut with turning-saw, chisel, and spokeshave, and the edges molded with the gouge or chisel. If there is incised decoration it should be cut before the molding is cut, so that while being incised, the piece will lie flat without tipping.
These simple pieces, as well as others, are often embellished by chamfering. A chamfer is a surface produced by cutting away an arris. It differs from a bevel in that a bevel inclines all the way to the next arris, while a chamfer makes a new arris, Fig. 271. A thru chamfer extends the whole length or width of a piece, while a stop chamfer extends only part way. For the laying out of a chamfer.
Thru chamfering is best done with a plane, Fig. 272. For this purpose the piece may be held in the bench-vise and the plane tipped to the proper angle, or the piece may be held in a handscrew which in turn is held in the vise as in Fig. 175. The chamfers with the grain should be planed before those across the grain.
In chamfering a four-square stick into an eight-square, the piece may be gripped in the vise diagonally, Fig. 273, or it may be held in a trough made of two strips of wood from each of which an arris has been chamfered and then the two nailed together, Fig. 274. A dowel or nail may be inserted in the trough for a stop. Stop chamfers are pared best with a chisel, Fig. 275, held according to convenience either flat side or bevel side up.