Setting Out The Halved Joint
Although at first sight the halved joint may appear to be a very easy item of construction, it requires much care and attention in marking out and sawing. shows the two pieces which form the joint separated, and it will be noticed that each piece of wood has half its thickness cut away, so as to accommodate the other piece. This type of joint is used where two pieces of wood cross each other at right angles, or at an angle as shown in . The halving joint is used also for joining two pieces of wood at their ends, as, for instance, the corner of a frame, one half of this joint being shown at .
Fig. 63.—How the Timber is Marked.
Fig. 64.—Marking the Joint with Try Square.
To make the joint, the timber should be carefully planed to its exact width and thickness. The two pieces may then be placed upon the bench (as shown at ) or fixed in the vice.
Find the centre of the timber, C, , and set out half the width of the wood on each side of the dotted centre line. Thus, suppose the wood (W) to be 2 ins. wide, then set 1 in. on each side of the centre line. Take a square as at , and with a sharp penknife blade score or cut a line all round each piece of timber.
Fig. 65.—Using the Marking Gauge.
Next take up a marking gauge, and set the marking point to half the thickness of the wood. The distance may be measured, and its exactness tested, by pricking a small hole from each side of the wood with the marking gauge and carefully noting that the pricked holes coincide. The gauge mark is clearly shown in the various illustrations. Now, take a pencil and scribble or mark "waste" on the parts you intend to cut away. This will save trouble later on, especially if you are making several joints at once. Take your sharp penknife or marking knife blade, and cut fairly deeply into the marked line on the portion you are going to pare away.
Fig. 66.—Chiselling away Wood up to Gauge Line.
Fig. 67.—How work is held when Sawing Shoulder.
Fix the wood firmly in your vice, or against your cutting board or bench stop, as may be more convenient to you, and with a sharp chisel cut away the wood up to the marked line, as at . The channel in the sketch is exaggerated, so as to show the method clearly. The object of using a penknife or marking knife to mark your work, instead of using a pencil, will be obvious. Owing to the knife having scored about 1⁄16 in. deep across the fibres of the wood, the timber will come away cleanly when the chisel is used, as at . The small channel thus made will form a guide in which to start your tenon or dovetail saw; it prevents the saw cutting on the wrong side of the marked line and thus making the halving too wide.
Fig. 68.—Paring away Waste with Chisel.
Fig. 69.—Showing an Oblique Halved Joint.
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